The rules cover a large part of linguists' needs in glossing texts, but most authors will feel the need to add (or modify) certain conventions (especially category labels). Linguists by and large conform to certain notational conventions in glossing, and the main purpose of this document is to make the most widely used conventions explicit.Still, it will be useful to have a standard set of conventions that linguists can refer to, and the Leipzig Rules are proposed as such to the community of linguists. Depending on the author's purposes and the readers' assumed background knowledge, different degrees of detail will be chosen.The final step was the addition of a glass foyer, which connects it to an adjacent gasometer and also contains the restaurant.(The one in Dresden is slightly less tall.) Digital technology is used to combine photos, drawings and paintings into a single large picture file, which is then printed onto individual strips of textile.
one may want to add information about larger units such as words or phrases; the rules here only allow for information about morphemes).It has a diameter of 57 metres (187 ft) and a total height of 49 metres (161 ft), including the cupola with lantern.From 2002–05 it was renovated to allow the transformation into Asisi's panoramic display.There must be exactly the same number of hyphens in the example and in the gloss. (2) Lezgian (Haspelmath 197) ‘Now their farm will not stay behind forever.’ Since hyphens and vertical alignment make the text look unusual, authors may want to add another line at the beginning, containing the unmodified text, or resort to the option described in Rule 4 (and especially 4C).Clitic boundaries are marked by an equals sign, both in the object language and in the gloss.
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(22) Latin Top Rule 7: Inherent categories Inherent, non-overt categories such as gender may be indicated in the gloss, but a special boundary symbol, the round parenthesis, is used. (23) Hunzib (van den Berg 19) 'Because of the boy the tree bent.' (G4 = 4th gender, AD = adessive, PRET = preterite) Rule 8: Bipartite elements Grammatical or lexical elements that consist of two parts which are treated as distinct morphological entities (e.g.bipartite stems such as Lakhota na-xʔu̧ 'hear') may be treated in two different ways: (i) The gloss may simply be repeated: (24) Lakhota 'to leave' Infixes are generally easily identifiable as left-peripheral (as in 27) or as rightperipheral (as in 28), and this determines the position of the gloss corresponding to the infix with respect to the gloss of the stem.Moreover, glossing is rarely a complete morphological description, and it should be kept in mind that its purpose is not to state an analysis, but to give some further possibly relevant information on the structure of a text or an example, beyond the idiomatic translation. A remark on the treatment of glosses in data cited from other sources: Glosses are part of the analysis, not part of the data.In many cases, either a category label or a word from the metalanguage is acceptable. ' The ordering of the two metalanguage elements may be determined by various principles that are not easy to generalize over, so no rule will be provided for this. (Optional) If an object-language element is formally and semantically segmentable, but the author does not want to show the formal segmentation (because it is irrelevant and/or to keep the text intact), the colon may be used. (Optional) If a grammatical property in the object-language is signaled by a morphophonological change (ablaut, mutation, tone alternation, etc.), the backslash is used to separate the category label and the rest of the gloss. Several authors therefore use non-capitalized shortened abbreviations without a period.
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